It is a hole in the macula, which is generally related to the detachment of the vitreous gel from the macula. It is also related to trauma. It tends to be one-sided and it is more frequent in women.
Symptoms: They vary according to the severity of the condition. Many cases are asymptomatic; others may present an important decrease in the central vision as well as metamorphopsia (lines appear distorted or curved.)
Treatment: In mild cases, observation is an option since the high rate of spontaneous resolution. In more developed phases, vitrectomy surgery is required in which the eye is filled with gas to produce obstruction. The gas is generally absorbed within 60 days, and vision will be extremely blurry as long as the gas is present in the eye. As the gas starts being absorbed, the patient’s vision gets better. It is essential to clarify that the gas produces an expansive effect; that is why you must not fly. In many cases a second intervention is required in order to completely close the macular hole. A silicone oil is used to produce obstruction, and after some months it is removed from the eye.
Retinografía color centrada en la mácula en la cual puede observarse la presencia de un agujero en dicha área.
Tomografía de coherencia óptica en donde se aprecia el agujero macular con mayor resolución. La OCT puede aportar datos importantes como, el tiempo de evolución aproximado de dicho agujero y el tamaño del mismo; datos que podrían correlacionarse con el pronóstico visual.